207 Indigenization and Decolonization

Jennifer Baetz



Last update: Nov. 24/23

This is a Canadian created resourceIndigenous e-Learning Assessment Strategies  by Stevie Jonathan (Six Nations Polytechnic) (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)

This course explores assessments in post-secondary online studies using a decolonizing approach to education and student success. In this five-module course, participants will critically engage with and adapt e-learning assessment strategies for use in their classrooms. Each module contributes to a cumulative understanding of how Indigenous pedagogies are operationalized and employed to effectively assess students, encourage intellectual self-determination, and support learner flourishing. Format: D2L (Brightspace) export (downloadable as a .zip file)

This is a British Columbia created resource.Pulling Together: Foundations Guide  by Kory Wilson (BC Institute of Technology) (CC BY-NC 4.0)

The Foundations Guide is part of an open professional learning series developed for staff across post-secondary institutions in British Columbia. These guides are the result of the Indigenization Project, a collaboration between BCcampus and the Ministry of Advanced Education, Skills and Training. The project was supported by a steering committee of Indigenous education leaders from BC universities, colleges, and institutes, the First Nations Education Steering Committee, the Indigenous Adult and Higher Learning Association, and Métis Nation BC. These guides are intended to support the systemic change occurring across post-secondary institutions through Indigenization, decolonization, and reconciliation. Includes: Learning goals, activities, knowledge checks, and glossary

Other titles in the series:

Pulling Together: A Guide for Curriculum Developers by Asma-na-hi Antoine, Rachel Mason, Roberta Mason, Sophia Palahicky, and Carmen Rodriguez de France

Pulling Together: A Guide for Front-Line Staff, Student Services, and Advisors by Ian Cull, Robert L. A. Hancock, Stephanie McKeown, Michelle Pidgeon, and Adrienne Vedan

Pulling Together: A Guide for Leaders and Administrators by Sybil Harrison, Janice Simcoe, Dawn Smith, and Jennifer Stein

Pulling Together: A Guide for Researchers, Hiłḵ̓ala by Dianne Biin, Deborah Canada, John Chenoweth, and Lou-ann Neel

Pulling Together: A Guide for Teachers and Instructors by Bruce Allan, Amy Perreault, John Chenoweth, Dianne Biin, Sharon Hobenshield, Todd Ormiston, Shirley Anne Hardman, Louise Lacerte, Lucas Wright, and Justin Wilson

Other editions:

Pulling Together: Manitoba Foundations Guide (Brandon Edition) by Manitoba Foundations Group  (CC BY-NC 4.0)


This is a Canadian created resourceHistorical and Contemporary Realities: Movement Towards Reconciliation  by Susan Manitowabi (Laurentian University)  (CC BY-NC 4.0)

This open textbook is written as a resource for educators to teach students about the Indigenous historical significance of the lands encompassing the Robinson-Huron Treaty area and more specifically the Greater Sudbury and Manitoulin area. It also, through the use of interactive mapping strategies, serves as a guide for educators to develop a similar resource to document Indigenous stories from their own areas. Includes: Instructor and student resources

This is a Canadian created resourceIndigenous Healthcare Education and Practice: Applying Digital Teaching and Learning Resources to the TRC’s Calls to Action  by Shalisa Barton, Bailey Brant, Lindsay Brant, Rachel Burger, Nicholas Cofie, Holly Crowson, Nancy Dalgarno, Mikaila Da Silva, et al.  (Queen’s University) (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

The topics of the digital collection were informed by collaborations with researchers and practitioners in healthcare and education, community partners, and learners. The creation of the digital collection was informed by the TRC’s Calls to Action and the principle of two-eyed seeing, which focuses on facilitating an online experience that respects and builds on the strengths of both Indigenous and Western ways of knowing and learning. The seven themes represented in the digital collection are (a) Historical Perspectives of Indigenous Peoples in Canada and Implications for Health Outcomes, (b) Biases, Racism, and Discrimination in Healthcare. (c) Indigenous Ways of Knowing and Healthcare, (d) Healthcare Rights, (e) Healthcare Services, (f) Culturally Safe Healthcare, and (g) Intersections between Education and Healthcare. Each  theme has been developed into an open-access online module. Six pieces of artwork created by Indigenous artists that represent one or more of the seven project themes are also included. Providing community-informed, accessible educational resources for healthcare learners is one way to help ensure that the TRC’s Calls to Action will be translated into meaningful change in clinical knowledge and practice by future generations of healthcare practitioners on the path to reconciliation and health equity.

This is a British Columbia created resource.Indigenous Information Literacy∗  by Rachel Chong (Kwantlen Polytechnic University) (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

This book outlines best principles for working with Indigenous print and oral sources in academic research. Topics include evaluating Indigenous print sources for credibility and authenticity, finding Indigenous authors, and respectfully working with Elders.

Indigenous Perspectives on Business Ethics and Business Law in British Columbia by Annette Sorensen (Coast Mountain College), Scott van Dyk (Coast Mountain College), and Marianne Brørup Weston (CC BY 4.0)

This book explores business ethics and business law through the lens of Indigenous-settler relations in Canada (with a focus on British Columbia in particular). It aims to fill a gap in business curriculum and support instructors who want to bring Indigenous content into their classes. The book starts by exploring relevant history, focusing on treaties, legislation, and federal government policy. It then looks at business ethics and what it means for businesses to work ethically with Indigenous communities. And finally, the book discusses business law and the requirements and responsibilities for businesses doing work on Indigenous lands. Includes: end-of-chapter questions, PowerPoint slides

This is a British Columbia created resource.Indigenous Teaching Resources: Students Collection∗  Edited by Katelyn Bouvier, Michelle Souliere, Lilach Marom, and Rachel Chong (Kwantlen Polytechnic University) (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

A compilation of resources to support Indigenous education initiatives. Includes picture book and chapter book use for K-12 classrooms. Activities to support mathematics and science-based learning. A portion of resources is also dedicated to intergenerational learning.

This is a Canadian created resourceIn Their Mocassins  by Sarena Johnson, Montana Paypompee, Kelsey Whissel, Samantha Mandamin, Kyle Desjarlais, Miranda Black, Mkons Stone-Debassige, and Jeremie Caribou (Toronto Metropolitan University) (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

In Their Moccasins is an online game environment based on the “choose your own adventure” storybook format. The game supports the education of allies about Indigenous ways of knowing, learning, and being. It fosters empathy toward the experiences of Indigenous peoples with the goal of building solidarity with an Indigenous resurgence in higher education and beyond.

This is a British Columbia created resource.Knowing Home: Braiding Indigenous Science with Western Science, Book 1  Edited by Gloria Snively and Wanosts’a7 Lorna Williams (University of Victoria) (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)

Book 1 provides an overview of why traditional knowledge and wisdom should be included in the science curriculum, a window into the science and technologies of the Indigenous peoples who live in Northwestern North America, Indigenous worldview, culturally responsive teaching strategies and curric­ulum models, and evaluative techniques. It is intended that the rich examples and cases, combined with the resources listed in the appendices, will enable teachers and students to explore Indigenous Science examples in the classroom; and in addition, support the development of culturally appropriate curriculum projects. Reviews: BCcampus – eCampusOntario Open Library


This is a British Columbia created resource.Knowing Home: Braiding Indigenous Science with Western Science, Book 2  Edited by Gloria Snively and Wanosts’a7 Lorna Williams (University of Victoria)  (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)

Knowing Home attempts to capture the creative vision of Indigenous scientific knowledge and technology that is derived from an ecology of a home place. The traditional wisdom component of Indigenous Science—the values and ways of decision-making—assists humans in their relationship with each other, the land and water, and all of creation. Indigenous perspectives have the potential to give insight and guidance to the kind of environmental ethics and deep understanding that we must gain as we attempt to solve the increasingly complex problems of the 21st century. This book provides a window into the vast storehouse of innovations and technologies of the Indigenous peoples who live in Northwestern North America. It is our hope that the Indigenous Science examples, research, and curriculum models will inspire deep reflection regarding the under-representation of Aboriginal students in the sciences. It is intended that the rich examples and cases, combined with the resources listed in the appendices, will enable teachers and students to explore Indigenous Science examples in the classroom, and in addition, support the development of curriculum projects in home places. Book 2 provides supportive research, case studies, curriculum projects and commentary that extends and enriches the chapters presented in Book 1.

Living Earth Community: Multiple Ways of Being and Knowing Edited by Sam Mickey (University of San Francisco), Mary Evelyn Tucker (Yale University), and John Grim (Yale University) (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)  (selected chapters under CC BY 4.0)

Living Earth Community: Multiple Ways of Being and Knowing is a celebration of the diversity of ways in which humans can relate to the world around them, and an invitation to its readers to partake in planetary coexistence. Innovative, informative, and highly accessible, this interdisciplinary anthology of essays brings together scholars, writers and educators across the sciences and humanities, in a collaborative effort to illuminate the different ways of being in the world and the different kinds of knowledge they entail – from the ecological knowledge of Indigenous communities, to the scientific knowledge of a biologist and the embodied knowledge communicated through storytelling. This anthology examines the interplay between Nature and Culture in the setting of our current age of ecological crisis, stressing the importance of addressing these ecological crises occurring around the planet through multiple perspectives. These perspectives are exemplified through diverse case studies – from the political and ethical implications of thinking with forests, to the capacity of storytelling to motivate action, to the worldview of the Indigenous Okanagan community in British Columbia. Includes: Vlog series

This is a Canadian created resourceOur Stories: First Peoples in Canada  by Collective (Centennial College) (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Led by a diverse team of Indigenous and non-Indigenous creators, Our Stories: First Peoples in Canada is a unique multi-media resource developed with Indigenous peoples from across Canada. Eliciting an unsettling of Western authority, this free eTextbook encourages recognition that moves beyond a colonial lens. This dynamic text allows the reader to engage with Indigenous histories, culture, and knowledge in a unique format that includes videos, podcasts, interactive tools, and more. Our Stories: First Peoples in Canada includes: contemporary and historic information and media; a balance of sources about injustice and resistance; both urban and remote Indigenous perspectives in Canada; and oral stories about the lived experiences of Indigenous community members. Answering the Truth and Reconciliation of Canada’s Calls to Action, the team developed Our Stories: First Peoples in Canada through a decolonizing lens. The materials present a balance of historical and contemporary materials that value Indigenous perspectives. Includes: Videos and podcasts

This is a Canadian created resourceSkoden: Teaching, Talking, and Sharing About and for Reconciliation  by Laureen Blu Waters, Randy Pitawanakwat, and Darcey Dachyshyn (Seneca College) (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)

In Skoden, instructors, staff, and administrators consider how to decolonize and Indigenize those aspects of post-secondary settings they are responsible for. Through a lens of looking back to understand how to go forward in reconciliation, participants learn about Indigenous teachings, Canadian colonization, the history and impact of treaties, and contemporary Indigenous challenges and resilience.

Talking Stories: Encyclopedia of Traditional Ecological Knowledge∗ by Michelle Scalise Sugiyama (University of Oregon)  (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Talking Stories explores oral storytelling as one of humanity’s earliest information technologies. For most of their existence as a species, humans have made their living as hunter-gatherers, which requires extensive, nuanced ecological knowledge. In the absence of writing, storytelling and other forms of symbolic behavior (e.g., art, song, dance, ritual, games) provided mnemonic frameworks for storing this knowledge, rules for faithfully copying it, and regular occasions for refreshing and transmitting it. Talking Stories is an open educational resource dedicated to raising awareness of hunter-gatherer literary traditions and ecological knowledge, and encouraging their incorporation into Western teaching. To this end, it aggregates stories from diverse foraging peoples across the planet, explicates the ecological knowledge encoded in these stories, and guides users to additional resources. It is intended for use by educators seeking to integrate traditional Indigenous literature and natural history into their courses, and by students and researchers interested in the origins of literature, science, and cultural transmission.


This is a Canadian created resourceEmpowering the Spirit: Educational Resource to Support Reconciliation∗  by Alberta Regional Professional Development Consortia (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Empowering the Spirit is a collection of resources curated to increase awareness and understanding of First Nations, Métis and Inuit histories, perspectives and ways of knowing. The collection of tools, videos and websites found within Empowering the Spirit lend support to teachers and school leaders as they endeavor to weave Indigenous knowledge systems into their current practice. (Note: this resource is specific to Alberta)


This is a Canadian created resourceStories of Decolonization  by Gladys Rowe, Teddy Zegeye-Gebrehiwot, and Elizabeth Carlson-Manathara (Laurentian University) (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Stories of Decolonization is a multi-film interview-based documentary project that shares personal stories in order to explore accessible understandings of colonialism and its continued impact on those living on the lands now called Canada. It also explores notions and actions of decolonization. Film One – Stories of Decolonization: Land Dispossession and Settlement (curriculum and definitions) Film Two – Stories of Decolonization: Decolonial Relations (curriculum and video under “Supplementary Materials”). Formats: Website, video, and PDF


Media Attributions

  1. See Canadian Federation of Library Associations (CFLA) (2018), Truth and Reconciliation Report and Recommendations
  2. Resources in this chapter are based on OER by Discipline Guide: University of Ottawa (Version 2.0 – June 2022) Copyright © 2022 by Mélanie Brunet and Catherine Lachaîne (CC-BY)


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OER by Subject Directory Copyright © 2022 by Jennifer Baetz is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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